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4.4-7  Ratification by the Principal 

New October 8, 2010 

Even if you do not find that <name of agent> acted with express, implied or apparent authority to bind the defendant in the <specify transaction>, the defendant may still be liable to the plaintiff if the defendant ratified the actions of <name of agent>. 

To establish that the defendant ratified the actions of <name of agent>, the plaintiff must prove all of the following facts:

  1. that the defendant had full knowledge of the material circumstances surrounding the <specify transaction>; and
  2. that the defendant, having the opportunity to reject <specify transaction>, willingly accepted the resulting benefits and obligations.

Ratification can be proven by direct or circumstantial evidence. Consequently, in deciding whether the defendant ratified the transaction, you should consider all the facts and circumstances as to whether the defendant expressed (his/her/its) intent to do so or whether such intent can be reasonably and logically inferred. 

If you find all of these facts to have been proven by the plaintiff, the defendant is bound by all of the terms of <specify transaction> and is, therefore, liable to the plaintiff for <specify>. If the plaintiff has failed to prove any one of these facts, then the defendant is not liable to the plaintiff. 


Russell v. Dean Witter Reynolds, Inc., 200 Conn. 172, 185 (1986); New Milford Block & Supply Corp. v. N. Grondahl & Sons, Inc., 51 Conn. App. 454, 458, cert. denied, 248 Conn. 901 (1999).


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